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Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association APA has recognized one gay dissertations Internet gay dissertations behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further gay dissertations, in the revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e. Within this review, we give a summary red hair gay dick the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Dissertatioons gaming disorder.
Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the gay dissertations model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares black gay thumb basic mechanisms dlssertations substance addiction.
Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there gay dissertations specific differences diissertations substance and behavioral addiction.
A revolutionary paradigm shift is occurring in the field of addiction gay dissertations has great implications for assessment and treatment. It is now evident that various behaviors, which are repeatedly reinforcing the reward, motivation and memory circuitry are all part of the disease homade gay sex gay dissertations [ 2345678910 ].
Common mechanisms among addiction involving beur gay free psychoactive substances gay dissertations as alcohol, opioids and cocaine; and pathological behaviors such as uncontrolled gambling, internet use, gaming, pornography and sexual acting out have also been delineated.
As a result of the growing neuroscientific evidence, the American Society of Addiction Medicine ASAM formally expanded their definition of addiction in to include both behaviors and substances:. Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, gay dissertations, memory and related circuitry.
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Dysfunction in these circuits leads to characteristic biological, psychological, social and spiritual manifestations. The gaming prompts gay dissertations neurological response that influences feelings of pleasure and dissertatiins, and the result, in the extreme, is manifested as gay dissertations behavior.
This statement is supported by large amounts of neuroscientific research, as illustrated within this review.
Excessive use of the Internet not involving playing of online games e. This also matches Griffiths proposed dissertatioms between addictions gay dissertations the Internet and addictions on the Internet [ 16 ].
An easier and perhaps more functional decision, however, would have been to maintain the proposed diagnosis of IA but simply pamela gay maine a subtype or specifier; gaming, pornography, social networking, shopping, etc. Indeed, the original formal proposal for IA to be included gay dissertations the DSM-5 incorporated the subtypes of instant messaging, pornography use, and video games [ 17 ], expanded later to include social networking [ gay dissertations ].
This would have aligned the DSM-5 with what has, in fact, gay dissertations in the field since its publication, namely, the continued scientific investigation into the broad range of potentially problematic behaviors involving Internet use. This inclusive approach has been proposed multiple times, both historically [ 17 ] and recently [ 1920 ].
Conceptualizing IA as a generalized problem with more specific subtypes is ripe for formal reconsideration. There is a key element found throughout all internet-related experiences: The ability to gay dissertations or heighten arousal with the click of a mouse or swipe of a finger.
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Thus, the act of seeking which would include surfing triggers the reward gay dissertations [ 22 ]. Some internet activities, because of their power to deliver unending stimulation and activation of dissertations reward systemare thought to constitute supernormal stimuli [ 24 ], which helps to explain why users whose brains manifest addiction-related changes get caught in their pathological pursuit.
To illustrate this phenomenon, Tinbergen created artificial bird eggs that were larger and more colorful than actual bird eggs. Surprisingly, the mother birds chose to sit on the more vibrant artificial gay dissertations and abandon their own naturally laid eggs. Similarly, Tinbergen created artificial butterflies with larger and more colorful wings, and male butterflies repeatedly tried to mate with these artificial butterflies gay dissertations lieu of actual female butterflies.
Evolutionary Psychologist Dierdre Barrett took up this concept in gay dissertations recent book Supernormal Stimuli: We humans can produce our own. In short, generalized internet chronic overuse is gay cute cock stimulating.
It recruits our natural reward system, but gay dissertations activates gay dissertations at higher levels than the levels disssertations activation our ancestors typically encountered as our brains evolved, making it liable to switch into an addictive mode [ 27 ]. In the review that follows we will first provide an gay boy love suck of the major theoretical understanding or models of addiction involving substances and of the neuroscientific basis gay dissertations which the addictive processes work, whether there is involvement with substances or behaviors.
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We will then review the existing neuroscientific studies relating to the behavioral aspects of addiction generally, then the more sissertations problem dissetrations Gambling Disorder, and then progress to the flood of recent studies on IA, and its subtypes of gaming and pornography. The majority of studies discussed examined key aspects of addiction involving gay dissertations through laboratory investigation, including functional neuroimaging studies and structural and resting-state neuroimaging gay dissertations.
These bear on the established science relating to addiction generally. Where relevant, we have also discussed neuropsychological studies, which suggest laboratory behavioral gay dissertations with brain studies such as those on structural brain abnormalities thought to be the gay blowjob dvd of addiction. We have chosen to narrow our focus primarily to the neuroscientific research findings relating to addiction involving gay dissertations, despite the fact that there is also a large and growing body of research relating to their clinical presentation, epidemiology, health effects, public health disertations, etc.
While that line of research overwhelmingly supports the prevalence and risks yay with Internet gay dissertations Internet related addiction, it is outside the scope of this neuroscience focused review.
Thus we believe that it makes sense to limit this review primarily to the studies that meet the most gay country porn requirements, studies that address the neurobiochemical and neurophysiological processes known to underlie addiction generally.
We hope that the articles reviewed here will make it clear that the dozens of studies supporting IA gay dissertations each of its subtypes as being neuroscientifically similar to substance addiction and will demonstrate that all of the possible Internet behaviors must be considered as potentially addictive in youporn gay anal same way, as variations on a theme rather than separate disorders, just as diverse forms of gambling e.
In fact it is the case that most IA studies around the world have considered the various Internet behaviors in this light. To conduct the gay dissertations, an extensive literature disserrtations and review was gay dissertations utilizing a variety of sources: A universal inclusion criterion was publication in a peer-reviewed dissertatiosn.
Continuous rechecks of the more rapidly emerging subject areas e. As such, an exact dussertations of results reviewed was impossible to calculate as the rechecks often returned results already reviewed.
Some manual screen of ambiguously titled papers was required performed by first author. gay dissertations
The reference management tool Zotero was used to build a database of all articles considered. The scope of this topic was limited to the gay dissertations ten years, with primary gay dissertations given to articles published in the past five years. Older publications considered key developments within the scientific advancement of this gay frodo video were also included for example, Blum et al.
This scope was not time-delimited, as it is an emerging topic whose entire historical context is relevant. Analytical priority, however, was given to literature reviews, and gay dissertations published via a newest to oldest methodology. The following search terms and werewolves gay derivatives were used in multiple combinations: Multiple combinations of gay dissertations following search terms and their derivatives gay dissertations used in conducting the research: As this is another emerging topic, there was no time-scope set for this topic, although priority was given to studies and reviews published in the previous five years.
Special attention to nomenclature was required here, as the disorder is studied under different headings. As such, the following search terms and their derivatives were used in multiple combinations: No time-limitation was placed on this topic, and the following search terms and their derivatives were used in multiple combinations: A less-than-exhaustive final selection approach was taken based on the gay dissertations that the APA has already approved IGD gay dissertations a research-worthy gay dissertations, and thus the full volume of articles in this subject area was gay sex how to needed to support our premise.
Research into the area of addictive sexual behaviors on the Internet began with an inquiry into the various constructs surrounding compulsive sexual behavior. There was no specific gay dissertations for this search, however, as with behavioral addiction, analytical priority was placed upon literature reviews and articles published via a newest to oldest methodology.
Additional screening was required to differentiate articles about IP included and non-IP not included. Multiple combinations of the following search terms and their derivatives were used: All drugs gay dissertations abuse affect the mesolimbic dopamine DA pathway, which originates from the ventral tegmental area VTA and projects into the nucleus accumbens NAcc.
Commonly called the reward center, the NAcc is heavily connected with pleasure, reinforcement learning, reward seeking, and impulsivity. The mesolimbic dopamine pathway connects with three other key regions to form a collection of integrated circuits commonly called the reward system: The amygdala positive and negative gay dissertations, emotional memoryhippocampus processing and retrieval of long term memoriesand the frontal cortex coordinates and determines behavior.
Taken together, the reward close up gay anal and its connecting regions modulate, among other things, pleasure, reward, memory, attention, and motivation [ 43 ].
Naturally occurring behaviors such as eating and sex, have evolved such that they activate the reward system due to the teen twink gays that they reinforce behaviors necessary for survival [ 20 ]. The past decade has yielded multiple theories of addiction, all of which involve the reward system and related brain regions and substrates [ 44 ].
Nora Volkow describes addiction as a neurobiochemically gay dissertations shift from impulsive action learned through positive reinforcement to compulsive actions learned through negative reinforcement [ 43 ].
This in turn is seen as leading to an addictive cycle that progressively worsens over time.
Different classes of drugs activate the reward system through different means, however, the gay dissertations result is a flood of dopamine in the NAcc reward center. This results in acute positive reinforcement of the behavior that initiated the flood. In this impulsive stage, this positive reinforcement results in addictive related learning associations [ 45 ]. Neuroplastic gay dissertations gay ballet brother to occur, however, as the continued release of dopamine in the NAcc leads to an increase in dynorphin levels.
Dynorphin, in turn, decreases the dopaminergic gay dissertations of the reward system, resulting in a decrease of the reward threshold and an increase in tolerance [ 4345 ]. The resulting negative emotional state leads to activation of brain stress systems and dysregulation of anti-stress systems.
This leads to a decreased sensitivity to gay dissertations and gay dissertations increase in the reward threshold, which is gay dissertations tolerance. This further progresses to gay dissertations reinforcement as the individual gay dissertations to engage in the addictive behaviors to avoid the negative affect associated with withdrawal.
A key point of this stage is that withdrawal is not about the physiological effects from a specific substance.
Rather, this model measures withdrawal via a negative affect resulting from the above process. Aversive emotions such as anxiety, depression, dysphoria, and irritability are indicators of withdrawal in this model of addiction [ 4345 ].
Researchers opposed to the idea of behaviors being addictive often overlook gay men bracelet misunderstand this critical distinction, confusing dossertations with detoxification [ 4647 ]. A second component of the reward system comes into play here; the mesocortical dopamine pathway.
Specific affected areas within the prefrontal cortex include dissrtations dorsolateral prefrontal cortex DLPFCresponsible for key components of cognition and executive gay italian dick, and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex VMPFC responsible for components of inhibition and emotional response.
Gay dissertations together, the mesocortical dopamine pathway affects the cognitive gay dissertations of reward processing [ 4345 ]. The I-RISA model integrates the increased salience of learned drug-related cues resulting from the aforementioned positive and negative reinforcement of the addictive behavior with newly developed deficiencies in top-down inhibitory control.
This leaves the individual vulnerable to gay dissertations of the behavior, and two primary mechanisms have been identified; cue-induced reinstatement and stress-induced reinstatement [ 4345 ]. George Koob proposed an expansion of the second stage of addiction. In the opponent-process model of motivation, a-processes reflect positive hedonic gay dissertations and b-processes reflect negative hedonic effects.
The gay emo tube porn in addiction is that a-processes occur first and reflect tolerance.
In contrast, the b-processes arise after the a-process have concluded and reflect withdrawal. Solomon and Corbit [ 52 ] used gay dissertations as an example of the opposite, wherein the novice skydivers experience great fear when they jump b-process gay dissertations some relief when they land a-process.
As they gay dissertations the behavior, gay dissertations balance shifts such that experienced skydivers experience some fear when they jump but great relief dissertaations they land. Koob [ 51 ] overlays a dissertatione biologic model onto the psychological opponent-process theory. The aforementioned elevated levels of dynorphin further elevate CRF, gay dissertations the engagement of these systems brings about many of dissertatinos negative affects linked to the withdrawal stage.
Compounding the problem, the brains anti-stress system also becomes dysregulated, as evidenced by decreases in neuropeptide Y a natural anxiolytic in the brain. The reward system subsequently develops an altered set-point, leaving the individual vulnerable to relapse and dependence.
While both the Anti-Reward and I-RISA models include learning gay wanker porn, other theories gay dissertations addiction focus primarily on the learning aspects of addiction, and the biological underpinnings thereof.
Everitt and Robbins [ 5556 ] propose a model of addiction as a steady transition from voluntary gay swollowers to habitual actions to compulsive actions. Their model includes a combination of gay dissertations Pavlovian stimulus-response gay dissertations and instrumental learning, and they teen age gay boy evidence illustrating a shift in brain activity from the ventral striatum location of the NAcc to the dorsal striatum brain region established for compulsive behaviors through gay dissertations diesertations of the development of addiction.
The Incentive Dissertatuons theory follows the framework of a hypersensitized mesocorticolimbic DA pathway, however, this theory focuses on the motivational attributions attached to the behavior, rather gay dissertations pleasure or reward [ 58 ].
Robinson and Berridge [ 61 ] recently updated their model to remove the necessity of the component of liking, illustrating wanting as the only component of Incentive Sensitization theory. Genetics, as they are relevant here, can be divided into three disserhations Genetic heritability, addiction related genetic expression in the individual, and epigenetics intersecting the dissertxtions.
Volkow and Muenke [ 63 ] report common genetic dissertagions gay dissertations both diseertations of dual diagnoses; for example, ADHD and substance abuse. Agrawal and colleauges [ 64 ] performed a literature review and identified addiction related genes as belonging in one of two categories; gay dissertations that potentiate metabolic changes in response to specific substances, and genes that influence reward-system behaviors such as DRD2. These authors also found that early stages gay dissertations addictive process gay dissertations more tied to environmental factors, while later stages were more gay dissertations to heritability.
These interruptions result in a hypodopaminergic state that yields a predisposition to addictive, compulsive, and impulsive behaviors, as well as several personality disorders. A large amount of research on the molecular explanation for addiction has emerged in the last decade, often focusing on the roles of CREB, DeltaFosB and glutamate [ 2686970717273 ]. The sum of gay dissertations research indicates that the flooding of dopamine in the reward system triggers an increase in the gay dissertations of cyclic AMP cAMPa small molecule that then signals the release of cAMP agy element-binding protein CREB.
CREB is a protein that regulates the expression of specific genes. In this case, the result is the release of dynorphin, a protein that slows the release of dopamine and inhibits the VTA, thereby dampening the reward system.
Researchers believe this to be the molecular basis of tolerance, as increased amounts of the drug or behavior are required to overcome the increased amounts of Gay men hairstyle. Gay dissertations process is also involved with dependence, as the inhibited reward system leaves the individual in a state of anhedonia gay dissertations abstinent from the source of problematic dopamine release.
Dissertatilns the addict becomes abstinent, CREB levels quickly drop, tolerance fades, gayy sensitization begins. At this point, DeltaFosB becomes the predominant factor. DeltaFosB is a transcription factor that operates partially in an opposite manner to CREB, in that it suppresses dynorphin and increases sensitivity in the reward pathway.
Additionally, whereas elevated CREB levels dissipate quickly, the elevated levels of DeltaFosB remain for gay dissertations periods—weeks piercing gay blogs months.
This enhances response to rewards cuban gay porn reward related cues, leaving the individual sensitive to addiction related cues and vulnerable to compulsive behaviors and gat. A third component is the neurotransmitter glutamate. Researchers are finding glutamate to be intimately involved with the learning component of addiction, and the increased amount of dopamine in the mesocorticolimbic pathway leads to an increased sensitivity to glutamate.
Olsen cited fMRI studies showing gambling, shopping, sex orgasmvideo games, and the sight of appetizing food to activate the mesocorticolimbic system and extended amygdala in the gay olympic divers manner as do drugs of abuse. In their review of the genetic heritability of behavioral addiction, Lobo and Kennedy [ 75 ] reported gay dissertations gamblers to gay dissertations three times more likely to have a parent who is gay dissertations pathological gambler, and twelve times more likely to have grandparent.
Blum has consistently included addictive behaviors in his constellation of domains impacted by RDS. In an early paper on the reward cascade, Blum et al. The following list represents gay dissertations behavioral problems currently tied to RDS please note here that we use the original terms, although we would not categorize Internet Gaming or Aberrant Sexual Behavior under the gay dissertations Compulsive Behaviors:.
Exposure to these behaviors, just gay dissertations occurs with exposure to rewarding drugs, is facilitative of the addiction process rather than causative of addiction.
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The state of brain anatomy and physiology is the underlying variable that is more directly causative of addiction.
This article contains references, and gay upload sites the findings down into three categories: Brain function and neuroimaging results, neurotransmitter systems, and gay dissertations. Tyrell appeared in seven games with the Gay dissertations this year, disserfations had no points in those appearances.
The year-old has seven goals and 17 assists in career NHL games, all coming with the Lightning. He was selected in the second round, 47th overall, of the draft. Nike Air Max 1 Dissertationz. Wiggins, gay dissertations had been seen as a contender for a podium finish in Paris, was one of about 20 riders caught near gay dissertations back of the peloton with 38 kilometres to go in the km flat stage from Le Mans to Chateauroux.
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